بررسی و تحلیل رابطه خوشه ای شدن صنعتی و ارتقاء ظرفیت های یادگیری (مورد مطالعه: خوشه‌های صنعتی مبلمان و چاپ و نشر در شهر قم)

نویسندگان

1 استادیار برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای، دانشکده هنر دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده علوم انسانی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

رویکرد خوشه های صنعتی، یکی از رویکردهای موفق در زمینه توسعه ی منطقه ای است که با فراخوانی همجواری های کالبدی، اجتماعی- فرهنگی، اقتصادی و نهادیِ فضای پیرامون، ارتقاء ظرفیت های یادگیری در محیط شهری و منطقه‌ای را موجب می‌شود. هدف مقاله حاضر، سنجش چگونگی رابطه میان خوشه ای شدن صنعتی و ارتقاء ظرفیت های یادگیری، در صنایع مبلمان و چاپ و نشر کلان شهر قم است. روش تحقیق در مقاله حاضر پیمایشی و رویکرد حاکم بر آن کاربردی بوده و حجم نمونه تحقیق بر اساس جدولِ «حداقل اندازه ی نمونه برای جامعه‌ی آماری» (94 بنگاه در صنعت مبلمان و 90 بنگاه در صنعت چاپ و نشر) و روش نمونه گیری احتمالی طبقه بندی شده تعیین شده و روایی ظاهری، روایی محتوایی و پایایی سازه های آزمون به ترتیب با استفاده از نظر کارشناسان، آزمون کرویت بارتلت و KMO و آزمون آلفای کرونباخ مورد تائید قرار گرفته است. ابزارهای پژوهش شامل پرسشنامه ی 10 سوالی ظرفیت های یادگیری و پرسشنامه 36 سوالی برای شاخص های خوشه صنعتی می باشد. داده ها از طریق تحلیل همبستگی پیرسون تحلیل شد. یافته ها نشان داد که در خوشه صنعتی چاپ و نشر، همجواری های اجتماعی-فرهنگی و اقتصادی و در خوشه صنعتی مبلمان، تنها همجواری اجتماعی- فرهنگی با و خصوصیات عمومی بنگاه های هر دو صنعت (سطح تحصیلات مدیر/مالک بنگاه، تعداد شاغلین، قدمت بنگاه و متوسط میزان فروش سالانه ی بنگاه) با ارتقاء ظرفیت های یادگیری رابطه ی معنادار دارند. علاوه بر این به نظر می‌رسد که همجواری های نهادی، کالبدی، و اقتصادی در صنعت مبلمان و همجواری های کالبدی و نهادی در صنایع چاپ و نشر در ارتقاء ظرفیت های یادگیری خوشه‌های صنعتی فوق نقش ضعیفی دارند. توصیه تحقیق این است که برای موفقیت بیشتر این خوشه‌ها و ارتقاء ظرفیت‌های یادگیری و در نهایت تحریک توسعه منطقه‌ای نیاز است تا همجواری های نهادی، کالبدی، اقتصادی و فرهنگی اجتماعی این صنایع تقویت گردد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Investigation and Analysis of Relationship Industrial Clustering and the improvement of Learning Capabilities in the Printing / Publishing and Furniture Industries in Qom Metropolis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hashem Dadashpoor 1
  • Mahdi Pourtaheri 2
  • Abolfazl Moarrefi 3
1 Assistant Professor,Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor,Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran
3 M.A Student in Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The industrial cluster approach is one of the successful approaches for regional development, Causes the improvement of learning capabilities in the urban and regional environment, using physical, social-cultural, economic and institutional proximities of the surrounding environment. This paper aims to The Investigation and Analysis of Relationship Industrial Clustering And the improvement of learning capabilities in the Printing / Publishing and Furniture Industries in Qom’ Metropolis. This is a survey-based study (184 completed questionnaires) whit applied approach which required information gathered through the library study and fieldwork. The Study’s sample size is based on the “minimum sample size for population table” ( 94 firms in the furniture industry and 90 firms in the publishing industry) and “Stratified random sampling method”. Furthermore, apparent validity, content validity and reliability of test are verified by “using experts”, “KMO and Bartlett's sphericity test” and “Cronbach's alpha test” respectively. Research instruments include learning capability questionnaire with 10 items and institutional cluster proximities with 36 items. Using Pearson correlation, data obtained by questionnaires are analyzed. Findings indicated that: printing/ publishing industry cluster with social-cultural and economic proximities industrial cluster furniture with only social-cultural proximity and general characteristics of both industrial firm’s (education manager/owner firms, the number of workers, the age of establishing and average annual sales of the firm) indicate a significant relationship between improvement of learning capabilities. Moreover, it seems that institutional, physical and economical proximities in the furniture industry and institution, physical proximities in printing/publishing industry haven’t a significant role in the learning capabilities enhancement. This study recommends that proximities of institutional, physical, economic, social-cultural industries should be strengthened for the success of these clusters and improvement of learning capabilities and finally stimulates regional development.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Industrial Clustering
  • Learning Capabilities
  • Proximity
  • Furniture Industrial Cluster
  • Printing/ Publishing Industrial Cluster
  • Qom Metropolis
1-      Albu, M. (1997). Technological Learning and Innovation in Industrial Clusters in the South(Doctoral Dissertation). University of Sussex.

2-      Adriani, P. (2003). Evolutionary dynamics of industrial clusters” In Mitleton-Kelly, E. (Ed) Complex systems and evolutionary perspectives on organizations: The application of complexity theory to organizations. E. Mitleton-Kelly Oxford, 73(2), 127–146.

3-      Asheim, B. (1995). Industrial districts as ‘learning regions’. A condition for prosperity? European Planning Studies, 4(4) ,379-400

4-      Bathelt, H. Malmberg, A. Maskell, P. (2004). Clusters and Knowledge: Local Buzz, Global Pipelines and the Process of Knowledge Creation, Progress in Human Geography, 28(1), 31-56. 

5-      Beerpoot. (2007). Learning and entrepreneurship in the furniture cluster in Metro Cebu, the Philippines, International Development Planning Review, 29(1), 23-42.   

6-      Bellandi, M. (1994). Decentralized industrial creativity in dynamic industrial districts, in Technological dynamism in industrial districts: An alternative approach to industrialization in developing countries? Unctad, United Nations, New York and Geneva, 73-87.

7-      Carrillo, J.F. (2006). “Knowledge Cities” ,Butterworth-Heinemann

8-      Dadashpoor, H. (2009).Industrial Clusters, Learning, Innovation and Regional Development, Rahbord-E-Yas, 18(1), 53-73.

9-      Dadashpoor, H & Ahmadi, F. (2010). Regional Competitiveness as a new Approach to Regional Development, Rahbord-E-Yas, 22(1), 51-80.

10-  Dadashpoor, H & Andrew, A. (2007). Industrial Clustering, Learning And Innovation in the Tehran Metropolitan Region: Empirical Evidence of the Electronics”, Studies in regional Science, 37(2), 471-499.

11-  Dadashpoor, H & Andrew, A. (2010). “Industrial Clustering, Innovation and Competitive Advantage in the Metropolitan Regions: Evidence from the Auto-parts Cluster within the Tehran Metropolitan Region”, International Journal Humanities, 17(1), 19-46.

12-  Ferreira .M.P. & Serra. F.A.R. (2008). Open and closed industry clusters: The social structure of innovation, Working Papers 24, global advantage, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.

13-  Fritsch, M, Kauffeld-monz, M. (2008). “The impact of network structure on knowledge transfer: an application of social network analysis in the context of regional innovation networks”, The Annals of Regional Science, 44(1), 21-38.

14-  Grando, A, Belvedere, V. (2006). District’s manufacturing performances: A comparison among large, small-to-medium-sized and district enterprises, International. J. Production Economics, 104(2), 85-99.

15-  Gulrajani, M. (2006). Technological Capabilities in Industrial Clusters: A Case Study of Textile Cluster in Northern India, Science Technology Society, 11(1).149-190.

16-  Hatzichronoglou, T. (1997). Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification, OECD Science, Technology and industry Working Papers,1997/2, OECD Publishing.

17-  lake. Peter William. (2004). business networks within a regional Industrial cluster (M.A. dissertation), university of Southern Queensland.

18-  Loviscek, A. Louis. (1980). Inter-industry Linkages And Industrial Clusters: A Comparative Analysis (Doctoral thesis), Morgantown, West Virginia.

19-  Maskell, Peter. (1998). Low-Tech Competitive Advantages and Role of Proximity: The Danish Wooden Furniture Industry, European Urban and Regional Studies, 5(2), 99-118.

20-  Mehprpoya, A. & Majidi, J.(2004).External Economies And Cooperation In Industrial Districts, Rasa Peeress, First Edition, (Translated in Persian).

21-  Morgan, J.Q.(2004). The role of regional industry clusters in urban economic development: an analysis of process and performance”, dissertation, North Carolina State University

22-  Moarrefi, A. Ashtiyani, V. Ilanloo, M. (2013). Industrial Clusters, Theory and Applications in Urban and Regional Planning, Qom. Aien Mahmoud Press

23-  Nateq, M.(2006). The Role of Clustering on Increasing Competitiveness of SMEs with Focus on Marketing Development, Institute for trade Studies Research, Tehran, First Edition

24-  Palacios, Juan J.(2005). “Economic Agglomeration And Industrial Clustering In Developing Countries: The case of the Mexican Silicon valley”, Section three, Edited by Akifumi Kuchiki, Sun Jian, Juan J. Palacios.

25-  Porter, M.(2000). Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy, Economic Development Quarterly,14(1) ,15-34

26-  Schiavone, F. (2004a). The Industrial District Model: An Entrepreneurial Overview. Studia Negotia Review, 1/2004.

27-  Simpson, H. (2007).”An Analysis of Industrial Clustering in Great Britain”, Final Report, Institute for Fiscal Studies, London

28-  Singh, Indira and Evans, J. (2009) Natural Resource-Based Sustainable Development Using a Cluster Approach, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 59(1), 183-201.

29-  Steinfield, C. (2005, March). When Do SMEs Benefit from E-Commerce in an Industrial Cluster? Evidence from a Biotech Cluster, at the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Symposium on Industrial Clustering, Taipei, March 8-9

30-  Sull, Donald N. (2003). The co-evolution of technology and industrial cluster: The rise and fall of the Akron Tire Cluster”, Working Paper Harvard Business School Under preparation for submission to Industrial and Corporate Change